Poland has a strategic location in the centre of the continental Europe, neighbouring with: Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania and Russia. There are 4 major maritime ports: Szczecin, Świnoujście, Gdańsk, Gdynia. Polish transport infrastructure is part of Trans-European Transport Network TEN-T and two of nine TEN-T core network corridors cross its territory: Baltic – Adriatic (North-South axis connecting Central European countries and ports of Baltic and Adriatic seas) and North Sea – Baltic (West-East axis connecting Baltic States, Poland with Germany and Benelux countries). Poland is the transit country for the main transport corridors between Asia and Europe. There are air, rail and maritime direct connections between Poland and China.

Maritime ports

Main cargo groups: general cargo, containers, ro-ro, coal, liquid fuels, other bulk, passenger traffic

Advantages: Polish seaports are key links in the Trans-European Transport Corridor VI linking Scandinavia with the South-Eastern Europe. Ports are located near airports and highways. Therefore they are well communicated with the rest of Europe and – through regular direct cargo trains from Chengdu, Suzhou etc. – also with China.

Investment possibilities: Polish sea ports offer a wide range of investment possibilities, which are listed in the links below. Actually one of the main investment project (2 bln PLN) is container terminal in the Port Szczecin-Swinoujscie.

Inland waterways

Poland is in the ambitious process of developing its inland waterways through modernization of the main rivers Odra and Vistula and constructing the missing link Danube-Oder-Elbe. Both of them will become an important part of European waterways system (as international waterways E30, E40 and E70). Polish government will need a strategic investor for this ambitious investments projects estimated for ca. 60 bln PLN.

Airports

In 2015 Polish airports served more than 30,8 million passengers. Polish airports are able to handle 40 million passengers annually, compared to 23 million in 2011.

There are 15 airports with commercial passenger service in Poland. The largest are:

  • Warsaw Chopin Airport: www.lotnisko-chopina.pl
    The largest Polish airport, which handles about 37% of the passenger traffic. In 2015 the airport was able to outrun the barrier of 11 million travelers, (11.19 million passengers). More than 58 thousand tons of cargo passed through Chopin Airport in 2015, a near 9% surge year-on-year and an all-time high for the airport.
  • John Paul II Krakow-Balice International Airport: www.krakowairport.pl
    In 2015, Cracow Airport handled 4.2 million passengers; an increase of more than 10% compared to 2014. This is the second largest airport in Poland in terms of passenger traffic.
  • Gdansk Lech Wałęsa Airport: www.airport.gdansk.pl
    Gdansk airport handled 3.68 million travelers in 2015. That is an annual growth of 13.5% compared to 2013.
  • LOT Polish Airlines S.A. is the flag carrier of Poland. LOT operates more than 60 destinations in Europe, North America and Asia. Most of destinations originate from its hub – Warsaw Chopin Airport. (www.lot.com)


Source: www.ulc.gov.pl

Container trains

Intermodal transport

With reference to intermodal transport, it should be emphasized that this is the most dynamic segment of the rail market in Poland which is strongly associated with the state of the economy – even called the barometer of the economy. The development of intermodal transport is supported by the Government. System of the intermodal transport is operating within the railway freight corridors as well as through 31 terminals located on the railway network (both planned to expanded).

The volume of intermodal transport constitutes about 70 % of total international carriages (operated in connections with Germany, Belarus and the Czech Republic). On national level intermodal transport is linking mainly Silesia with sea ports and terminals located near large urban agglomerations.

For detailed information on intermodal transport and freight trains, use also link below.http://www.utk.gov.pl/en/markettatistics-and-ann/market-analysis/201/6671,Polish-railways-in-2014-report-on-market-operations-and-traffic-safety.html

Container train between China and Poland

Warszawa – block trains from Suzhou to Warszawa operated by Far East Land Bridge (www.felb.world) and in Poland by PKP Cargo Logistics Group(www.pkpcargo.com)

Łódź –regular weekly scheduled Express Rail Cargo from China to Lodz handled by Hatrans Logistics (www.hatrans.pl)

Logistics centers

Terminals in main Polish seaports:

  • Szczecin and Świnoujście – i.e. Westpomeranian Logistic Centre (www.port.szczecin.pl),
  • Gdańsk and Gdynia (www.portgdansk.pl; www.port.gdynia.pl)– i.e. Deepwater Container Terminal (www.dctgdansk.pl) - hub for transshipments to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe, also for the landlocked countries: Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Belarus. Polish seaports have direct services with seaports of Eastern Asia

Several logistics centers localized on the inersections of north-south and east-west routes, among others:

  • Warszawa with direct rail services from Suzhou (China)
  • Łódź with direct rail services from Chengdu (China)
  • Poznań Franowo with direct rail services from China
  • Małaszewicze/ Terespol– the border station where containers/goods are transshipped from the wide gauge (1,520 mm) to the European standard gauge (1,435 mm) or vice versa (www.en.clmalaszewicze.pl)
  • "Euroterminal Slawkow" Ltd (www.euterminal.pl) - logistic terminal situated at the junction of wide gauge (1,520 mm) railway line and European standard gauge (1,435 mm) railway line; handles the container transport between the Far East/Asia and Western Europe.



Special Economic Zones

In the SEZ in Poland the entrepreneur can obtain the following privileges:

  • tax exemption (CIT or PIT)
  • a site fully prepared for business activity at a competitive price
  • free assistance in dealing with formalities in connection with the investment.

Exemption from income tax granted in the SEZ is regarded as regional aid, which serves to speed up the development of the most poorly developed regions by supporting new investments and creating new workplaces linked to these new investments.

The administrative-legal basis for being able to receive public assistance in the SEZ is permission to set up a business in the SEZ, which is granted by the SEZ board.

The permitted level of regional aid available to the entrepreneur depends on:

  • costs of new investment, or costs of employing new workers
  • the size of the entrepreneur seeking tax exemption
  • permitted level of aid in the given Polish region, which is expressed in percentages of the costs qualifying for cover under regional aid in the SEZ.

State aid in the SEZ is granted entrepreneurs regardless of the country of origin.

More information: http://www.paiz.gov.pl/investment_support/investment_incentives_in_SEZ

Transport and logistics business associations

Land Transport Chamber of Commerce - economic self government organization acting since 1995. The Chamber assembles over 100 entities connected with the railway sector. www.igtl.pl

The Railway Employers’ Union (ZPK) - gathers currently 26 members - companies operating in the railway sector and employing about 90.000 employees. www.zpkpkp.pl

Association of Independent Railway Carriers (ZNPK) - union of transport and logistics railway entities. Members of the Assotiation are entities acting as freight railway carriers. www.znpk.org/pl/znpk/

Association of International Road Transport Carriers in Poland (ZMPD) largest Polish association in the road transport sector, existing since 1957. It brings together more than 5 000 carriers engaged in international road transport. Carriers affiliated to ZMPD possess significant part of vehicles from over 180 000 total fleet of Polish international transport www.zmpd.pl

Association "Transport and Logistics Poland" (TLP) organization of employers operating on the basis of the Law on employers of 23 May 1991 (OJ 55, pos. 235). Among the founders were transport and logistics companies that play significant role on the labor market. http://tlp.org.

National Union of Road Transport Employers (OZPTD) was established in 2002 and is certified in accordance with DIN EN ISO 9001: 2009. www.ozptd.pl

Polish International Freight Forwarders Association (PIFFA) voluntary self governing organization associating the entrepreneurs who run economic activity in the scope of services in international and national freight forwarding, logistics, transport, customs agencies as well as other services related with the goods turnover. (www.pisil.pl)

Railway transport

The total length of operated railway network (2014) was 19 240 km out of which 11 830 km was electrified. The average domestic density of railway lines was 6.2 km / 100 km2. The density of the railway network in respective provinces, measured as km of line/100 km2, did not change significantly in 2014.

In Poland the separation of the infrastructure manager from the carriers is introduced. The manager (PKP PLK SA - www.plk-sa.pl) provides infrastructure based on communal regulations.

The list of carriers executing passenger services in 2015 on normal gauge lines, on the basis of “Conditions of Passenger Transport” issued by the President of the Office of Rail Transport, includes 13 companies.

Rail freight market is open and is highly competitive. It should be indicated that PKP CARGO (www.pkpcargo.com) and PKP LHS (https://www.lhs.com.pl/en) are playing the most important role. In 2014 there were 68 undertakings that provided services under a freight-carrier licence, including 66 undertakings on standard-gauge lines and 1 undertaking on wide-gauge lines.

For detailed information freight trains use also link below.

http://www.utk.gov.pl/en/markettatistics-and-ann/market-analysis/201/6671,Polish-railways-in-2014-report-on-market-operations-and-traffic-safety.html

Road transport

The total length of public roads in Poland reaches 417 000 km, what gives a density of over 130 km per 100 km2. The highcapacity road network is intensively developed and currently consists of 1553 km of motorways and 1498 km of expressways. In 2015 the government set up a program for development of the system of highways and expressways with the prospect to 2025 and with a value of 25.6 bln euro. We plan to build modern infrastructure, including the eastern part of Poland, like S19 – Via Carpatia.

International road transport of goods holds first place with a 59.7% share among the other modes of transport in Poland, in second place is rail transport with participation of 22,5%.

Dynamically developed sector of commercial freight road transport in Poland currently has in its disposal more than 180 trucks belonging to over 30 thousand transport companies.

The share of Polish international road transport in the European Union is almost 25% and causes that Poland takes first position on this market.

The chart shows dynamics of development of the international road freight transport in Poland in the years 2004-2015



The weight of the goods transported in Poland in the years 2001-2014

freight transport market in Poland in the years 2001-2014
transport mode
year
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
in m tonnes
in total
1 294.75
1 279.16
1 283.24
1 302.09
1 413.06
1 469.12
1 569.85
1 672.96
1 723.79
1 848.70
1 905.18
1 781.87
1 841.38
1 833.25
road transport
1 072.30
1 002.37
981.96
956.94
1 079.76
1 113.88
1 213.25
1 339.47
1 424.88
1 551.84
1 596.21
1 493.39
1 553.05
1 547.88
rail transpor
166.86
222.90
241.50
283.00
269.40
290.30
293.90
276.30
242.98
235.47
249.35
230.88
232.60
227.89
pipeline transport
45.30
46.13
51.78
53.38
54.26
55.63
52.87
49.03
50.24
56.21
54.49
52.99
50.66
49.81
inland-waterway transport
10.26
7.73
7.97
8.75
9.61
9.27
9.79
8.11
5.66
5.14
5.09
4.58
5.04
7.63
air transport
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.04


The volume of transported weight of freight by groups (in thous. tonnes) and market shares in 2014

weight of goods
groups of goods
in total (in thousand tonnes)
market share [%]
TOTAL
228 866.019
100.00%
products of agriculture, hunting, and forestry; fish and other fishing products
4 312.741
1.88%
of which
Cereals
282.522
0.12%
hard coal, lignite, crude oil and natural gas
93 485.418
40.85%
of which
hard coal
92 646.333
40.48%
metal ores and other mining and quarrying products
61 334.839
26.80%
of which
iron ores
13 064.237
5.71%
aggregates, sand, gravel, clay
43 333.508
18.93%
food products, beverages and tobacco products
2 211.442
0.97%
textiles and textile products, leather and leather products
21.117
0.01%
wood and articles of wood, cork, articles of straw, paper and paper products, printed matter and recorded media
1 917.777
0.84%
coke, briquettes, refined petroleum products, manufactured gas
24 645.833
10.77%
of which
refined petroleum products
14 062.304
6.14%
chemicals, chemical products, and man-made fibres, rubber and plastic products, nuclear fuel
9 840.204
4.30%
other non-metallic mineral products
3 246.887
1.42%
of which
cement, lime, gypsum
2 212.881
0.97%
other building materials
917.276
0.40%
basic metals, fabricated metal products, except machinery and equipment
8 948.452
3.91%
machines, appliances, electrical and electronic equipment
237.028
0.10%
transport equipment
895.602
0.39%
furniture, other manufactured goods n.e.c.
351.821
0.15%
secondary raw materials, municipal wastes
3 348.066
1.46%
letters, packages and courier’s parcels and shipments
0.000
0.00%
empty packaging
762.045
0.33%
goods moved in the course of household and office removals, other non-market goods n.e.c.
1.786
0.001%
mixed goods, excluding food products
1 213.925
0.53%
unidentifiable goods
6 230.324
2.72%
other goods n.e.c.
5 860.711
2.56%

Border crossing

Poland is a member of the Schengen area. More informations: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:32006R0562

Link to PL Border Guard (subordinated to the Ministry of the Interior and Administration) website: www.strazgraniczna.pl

Border crossing points (bcp) at the PL/EU external border:

  • Land border:
  • Road border crossing points: 19
  • Russian Federation 4: Republic of Belarus 6 (+1):
  • Ukraine 8:
  • River border crossing point: 1 Republic of Belarus:
  • Railway border crossing points: 14
  • Russian Federation 3:
  • Republic of Belarus 5:
  • Ukraine 6:
  • Airport border crossing points: 20
  • Constant: 12
  • Additional: 8
  • Sea border crossing points: 18

Ministries of transport in Poland

Ministry of Maritime Economy and Inland Navigation Republic of Poland
ul. Nowy Swiat 6/12
00-400 Warsaww
www.mgm.gov.pl

Ministry of Infrastructure and Construction Republic of Poland
ul. Chałubińskiego 4/6
00-928 Warsaw
www.mib.gov.pl

Embassy of Poland in the People’s Republic of China

Embassy of the Republic of Poland in Beijing
1 Ritan Rd. Beijing, China,
Post code: 100600
Tel.: +86 10 653 21 235 ext. 110
Fax: +86 10 653 21 745
E-mail: pekin.amb.sekretariat@msz.gov.pl